Friday, June 16, 2017

GBIF Challenge 2017: Liberating species records from open data repositories for scientific discovery and reuse

Ebbe v5 300

GBIF is running its Ebbe Nielsen Challenge for the third successive year. This year the title is Liberating species records from open data repositories for scientific discovery and reuse. To quote from the Challenge background on Devpost:

This year's Challenge will seek to leverage the growth of open data policies among scientific journals and research funders, which require researchers to make the data underlying their findings publicly available. Adoption of these policies represents an important first step toward increasing openness, transparency and reproducibility across all scientific domains, including biodiversity-related research.

To abide by these requirements, researchers often deposit datasets in public open-access repositories. Potential users are then able to find and access the data through repositories as well as data aggregators like OpenAIRE and DataONE. Many of these datasets are already structured in tables that contain the basic elements of biodiversity information needed to build species occurrence records: scientific names, dates, and geographic locations, among others.

However, the practices adopted by most repositories, funders and journals do not yet encourage the use of standardized formats. This approach significantly limits the interoperability and reuse of these datasets. As a result, the wider reuse of data implied if not stated by many open data policies falls short, even in cases where open licensing designations (like those provided through Creative Commons) seem to encourage it.

In essence, the 2017 Challenge is to develop tools to discover these biodiversity-relevant datasets, and make them available to GBIF. In other words, we want tools to enable us to do this:


As an example of the impact that external data can have on GBIF, last year I wrote a blog post (The Zika virus, GBIF, and the missing mosquitoes) describing how I took published data (doi:10.1038/sdata.2015.35) from the Dryad repository and added it to GBIF. The effect was dramatic:




1651430 updated

This is just one example. I suspect that there is a lot of biodiversity data gathering digital dust sitting in repositories that could be more widely reused if we just had the tools to discover it, and convert it into a form that GBIF can use. Prove me right, and win cash prizes! Details at

Wednesday, May 31, 2017

Programming with Glitch: microservices and serverless computing

LgbNpkq 400x400Yes, this post is indeed an attempt to fit as many buzzwords that I don't really understand into the title. I've been playing around with Glitch, which is a delightful project from Fog Creek (makers of Trello and co-creators of Stack Overflow).

On first glance Glitch looks weirdly retro, and it took a little while for me to get the hang of things. Bit it's fun and very powerful. Basically it's a place where you can start creating web apps in your browser, and each app is automatically hosted online. If you see an app that you like you can see the source code (just like you can see HTML using "view source" in your browser). if you want to hack on the code you can simply create a copy and it's yours to play with (this is called "remixing", like forking on GitHub). Your copy gets a cute name (possibly annoyingly cute) and away you go.

If you're a developer, then at this point you're probably wondering what is actually happening under the hood. Each Glitch app is a node.js app, which means you're programming in Javascript (you can just use HTML and client side Javascript if you want to avoid node.js). I'm very new to node.js, so Glitch has been a fun way to experiment.

There are two things which make Glitch very powerful. The first is the "remix" feature. Don't know where to start? Find an app that looks like it might do something you want to do, remix it, and hack away. The code is edited online, and the editor works very well. It also checks your code for Javascript errors as you type, which is helpful (usually).

The second great feature is that you get built in hosting for free. As soon as you remix an app you have a functioning web site. Remixing is very like forking in GitHub, and if you're running node.js on your local machine then the benefits of Glitch might not seem obvious. But hosting is often a pain, either you need to set up your own servers, or use a hosting service. Glitch takes care of this for you, so your app is instantly available for others to use.

So, what can you do with Glitch? There's some great examples on the Glitch site, but I want to show an almost trivial example. I've created an app called "enchanting-bongo" (yes, the name is a bit irritating) that does one simple thing. You give it a DOI for an article and enchanting-bongo tells you whether any of the authors of that work have an ORCID. For example, try the DOI 10.3897/zookeys.555.6173. Why did I write this? I'm interested in ways to link people to the work that they've done, especially work that ends up being aggregated in large-scale biodiversity databases like GBIF (see Possible project: #itaxonomist, combining taxonomic names, DOIs, and ORCID to measure taxonomic impact).

Screenshot 2017 05 31 17 09 32

The app does one thing. It takes the DOI and calls the ORCID API to see if anyone has claimed authorship of the paper with that DOI. You can use the app with a web browser, or you can use an HTTP client and call the API (e.g.,

Glitch is an example of servers computing, where you don't have to worry about physical servers or the software infrastructure that runs on them (e.g., the web server itself), you just write code. Like any buzzword, there is some pushback, see for example What Is “Serverless”? An Alternative Take, but for a fascinating essay I recommend Why the fuss about serverless?. But the notion that I can simply hack away on some code and have an instantly available web app is very attractive.

The other buzzword is "microservices". I'm forever needing to do tasks such as find a DOI for a paper, match a "microcitation" to the enclosing article, locate a specimen in GBIF based on catalogue number in a paper, parse some text into structured data, such as a reference, geographic coordinates, etc. These are tools that I need in lots of contexts, and I've written software to do this on my machine, often as part of larger projects. "Microservices" is the idea that instead of large, monolithic apps we write a series of minimal tools that typically do one thing, and do it well. We then chain the together to do various tasks. Having small tools means that we can treat each problem independently, and if the tools communicate over the web (HTTP) then it doesn't matter what programming language we use. I've started thinking more and more about adopting this model and developing a bunch of small services to perform many of the tasks I need. Hosting these services then becomes in issue, I have web servers in my office but they are a pain to maintain (my university is forever insisting that I upgrade their software), so cloud-based hosting seems the obvious way forward. Free-hosting looks ideal, so Glitch is looking very attractive.

So, I'm hoping to experiment more with this approach. One thing I might do is create a series of services very like enchanting-bongo, have a simple web interface and an API that the web interface calls. That way users can play with it in their web browser, then call the service via the API if it does something useful. As a more sophisticated example of a service, I'm working on tools to parse Wikispecies reference strings, and link specimen codes to records in GBIF.

One reason I'm enthusiastic about Glitch is that it is fun!. Some of the best shifts in technology that I've made have been because a tool made something easy and fun to do. For example, CouchDB made working with structured data fun, and that was a revelation (databases, fun, surely not). Fun is a much neglected characteristic of the tools we use.

Querying Wikidata

For my own use more than anything else I've started creating a list of Wikidata SPARQL queries here. I personally don't find Wikidata's data model particularly easy to grasp, so one way to learn is to take the example queries on the Wikidata Query site and mess about with them.

For those interested in taxonomic data Wikidata is quite rich in content. For example, you can find the author of a taxonomic names, or find taxon names an author is responsible for creating.

It is also fairly straightforward to search for content by identifier, e.g.

  ?work wdt:P356 "10.2476/ASJAA.62.33" .
will find the article with the DOI 10.2476/ASJAA.62.33. One minor gotcha is that Wikidata has all DOIs in UPPERCASE, so you either need to sera for uppercase version of the DOI, or use a filter to convert the case, which is slow.

As I come across interesting or useful queries I'll add them to the list in GitHub.

Wikidata, WikiCite, and the "bibliography of life"

3hhZSGOn 400x400Last week I was at WikiCite 2017, a fascinating three day event in Vienna. Wikicite is "a proposal to build a bibliographic database in Wikidata to serve all Wikimedia projects", and is attracting increasing attention from academics, librarians, publishers, data geeks, and others. You can get a sense of the project by following @WikiCite on Twitter.

I went to the meeting in part to learn more about WikiCite, and also to spend some time hacking on Wikispecies. I'd been to only one Wiki event before (a Wiki Science Conference) so I'm still finding my way around this community. I spent the first two days listening to talks while coding away (more on this below), but on Wednesday put my own coding aside to join a bunch of people hacking the CrossRef event API in a great session led by Joe Wass. I've put some notes and code in GitHub. The event API tracks what people do with DOIs, including adding them to Wikipedia pages when citing a source in support of an assertion. A significant fraction of DOI resolutions are from Wikipedia pages, which is one reason why CrossRef was present at WikiCite.


In practice WikiCite's goal of building a bibliographic database to serve all Wikimedia projects means that articles, books, and other bibliographic items that are cited by Wikimedia projects will each be added to Wikidata. For example, the ZooKeys paper "Diversity of manota williston (Diptera, mycetophilidae) in ulu temburong national park, brunei" is item Q21188431 in Wikidata. Wikidata stores the key bibliographic metadata, including identifiers such as the DOI (which many at the WikiCite meeting pronounced "doy" much to my initial confusion). Screenshot 2017 05 31 12 46 43

This article was published in ZooKeys, which itself has a Wikidata item (Q219980), so in Wikidata the article is linked to the journal (i.e., "ZooKeys" isn't just a dumb string but a link to another Wikidata item). The article is also linked to two articles that it cites, and each of these is also a Wikidata item.

These citation links are one reason people are interested in WikiCite - it could be the basis of a free and open citation graph (for the benefits of such a graph see this piece by David Shotton doi:10.1038/502295a, a participant at the meeting in Vienna). Already some cool tools are being built on top of citation data in Wikidata, such as Scholia by Finn Årup Nielsen, Daniel Mietchen and Egon Willighagen. Here, for example, is my academic profile based on information in Wikidata. It's woefully incomplete, but intriguing. For a more complete example view Egon Willighagen's profile.

To some extent the utility of tools like Scholia will depend on how complete Wikidata's coverage is of the academic literature, which in turn raises the inevitable question of scope. Does Wikicite want to include just the literature cited in the various Wikimedia projects, or does it want to expand to include the total sum of academic literature?

Wikispecies, Wikidata and the bibliography of life

Wikispecies is one of the Wikimedia projects, and the only one that is topic-specific (the others are typically global in scope but have content in different languages, or host different data types such as images, scanned books, or structured data). As I've sketched out in an earlier post (Thoughts on Wikipedia, Wikidata, and the Biodiversity Heritage Library) I think Wikicite and Wikidata are potentially very important to projects such as BHL and the "bibliography of life". Much of our knowledge about the world's biodiversity is contained in the academic literature, and much of this is poorly known with no central database where we can find it, and much of it is still not digitised. It is tempting to think that Wikidata might be a platform around which the biodiversity community could focus its efforts on assembling a global database of biodiversity literature. Already major taxonomic journals such as ZooKeys are being fed into Wikidata, so it has a significant corpus of biodiversity literature already.

One way to grow this corpus is to focus on Wikispecies. In a post before the Wikicite meeting (Notes for WikiCite 2017: Wikispecies reference parsing) I elaborated on this idea. There are two stumbing blocks, one specific to Wikispecies, one a more general Wikidata issue.

The first issue is that Wikispecies bibliographic data is relatively unstructured, which makes converting it into structured data something of a challenge. I spent much of Wikicite hacking some code to do this on Glitch (more on Glitch later), you can see the results here: This web site takes a Wikispecies reference and tries to convert it into CSL-JSON. Still very much a work in progress, but I've started building tools that use this web site as a service and process larger numbers of Wikispecies citations.

The second issue is how you get data into Wikidata, and this is something that's never been entirely clear to me. There are tools for adding an article using its DOI (sourcemd) but this isn't scalable, and doesn't handle the case of articles that don't have DOIs. This is still a "How do you Snapchat? You just Snapchat" moment. Wikidata desparately needs tools and a clear procedure whereby people like me with lots of bibliographic data can contribute.


Another reason for my interest in Wikispecies (and other sources of bibliographic data such as the listed of cited literature being made available by CrossRef, see The Initiative for Open Citations) is that this data can be fed into BHL to locate more articles in that archive. Once these articles have been located they are stored in BioStor and BHL itself, but it makes sense to have them more accessible, and Wikidata looks to be an obvious candidate. Given that Wikispecies is essentially a crowd-source taxonomic database there is considerable overlap in content between Wikispecies and BHL. The Wikidata data model also allows for some of things that taxonomists care about, such as linking dates of publication to evidence relative to those dates (in older publications determining the publication date often requires quite extensive research).


Leaving aside the specific issues about how to get bibliographic data into Wikidata, I guess the question to ask is whether it makes sense to be developing large databases of bibliographic data without either using Wikidata as the platform to hold that data, or at least linking to Wikidata. Projects such as Gene Wiki are migrating from Wikipedia to Wikidata (see "Wikidata as a semantic framework for the Gene Wiki initiative" doi:10.1093/database/baw015), perhaps those of us interested in biodiversity literature could use projects like Gene Wiki as role models for how we could both contribute and benefit from Wikidata and Wikicite.

I've barely scratched the surface of what was discussed at Wikicite, for more details see the program. It is a very different sort of meeting in that the participants come from pretty diverse backgrounds, which helps shake up your own assumptions about what matters and how things should be done. It's also great that it's a meeting at which people write code or otherwise hack stuff together, so things actually get done. I've come away with lots to think about, and renewed enthusiasm about the role Wikimedia is playing in structuring our knowledge about the world.

Friday, March 24, 2017

This is what phylodiversity looks like

Following on from earlier posts exploring how to map DNA barcodes and putting barcodes into GBIF it's time to think about taking advantage of what makes barcodes different from typical occurrence data. At present GBIF displays data as dots on a map (as do I in But barcodes come with a lot more information than that. I'm interested in exploring how we might measure and visualise biodiversity using just sequences.

Based on a talk by Zachary Tong (Going Organic - Genomic sequencing in Elasticsearch) I've started to play with n-gram searches on DNA barcodes using Elasticsearch, an open source search engine. The idea is that we break the DNA sequence into every possible "word" of length n (also called a k-mer or k-tuple, where k = n).

For example, for n = 5, the sequence GTATCGGTAACGAACTT would look like this:



The sequence GTATCGGTAACGAACTT comes from Hajibabaei and Singer (2009) who discussed "Googling" DNA sequences using search engines (see also Kuksa and Pavlovic, 2009). If we index sequences in this way then we can do BLAST-like searches very quickly using Elasticsearch. This means it's feasible to take a DNA barcode and ask "what sequences look like this?" and return an answer qucikly enoigh for a user not to get bored waiting.

Another nice feature of Elasticsearch is that it supports geospatial queries, so we can ask for, say, all the barcodes in a particular region. Having got such a list, what we really want is not a list of sequences but a phylogenetic tree. Traditionally this can be a time consuming operation, we have to take the sequences, align them, then input that alignment into a tree building algorithm. Or do we?

There's growing interest in "alignment-free" phylogenetics, a phrase I'd heard but not really followed up. Yang and Zhang (2008) described an approach where every sequences is encoded as a vector of all possible k-tuples. For DNA sequences k = 5 there are 45 = 1024 possible combinations of the bases A, C, G, and T, so a sequence is represented as a vector with 1024 elements, each one is the frequency of the corresponding 5-tuple. The "distance" between two sequences is the mathematical distance between these vectors for the two sequences. Hence we no longer need to align the sequences being comapred, we simply chunk them into all "words" of 5 bases in length, and compare the frequencies of the 1024 different possible "words".

In their study Yang and Zhang (2008) found that:

We compared tuples of different sizes and found that tuple size 5 combines both performance speed and accuracy; tuples of shorter lengths contain less information and include more randomness; tuples of longer lengths contain more information and less random- ness, but the vector size expands exponentially and gets too large and computationally inefficient.

So we can use the same word size for both Elasticsearch indexing and for computing the distance matrix. We still need to create a tree, for which we could use something quick like neighbour-joining (NJ). This method is sufficiently quick to be available in Javascript and hence can be computed by a web browser (e.g., biosustain/neighbor-joining).

Putting this all together, I've built a rough-and-ready demo that takes some DNA barcodes, puts them on a map, then enables you to draw a box on a map and the demo will retrieve the DNA barcodes in that area, compute a distance matrix using 5-tuples, then build a NJ tree, all on the fly in your web browser.

This is all very crude, and I need to explore scalability (at the moment I limit the results to the first 200 DNA sequences found), but it's encouraging. I like the idea that, in principle, we could go to any part of the globe, ask "what's there?" and get back a phylogenetic tree for the DNA barcodes in that area.

This also means that we could start exploring phylogenetic diversity using DNA barcodes, as Faith & Baker (2006) wanted a decade ago:

...PD has been advocated as a way to make the best-possible use of the wealth of new data expected from large-scale DNA “barcoding” programs. This prospect raises interesting bio-informatics issues (discussed below), including how to link multiple sources of evidence for phylogenetic inference, and how to create a web-based linking of PD assessments to the barcode–of-life database (BoLD).

The phylogenetic diversity of an area is essentially the length of the tree of DNA barcodes, so if we build a tree we have a measure of diversity. Note that this contrasts with other approaches, such as Miraldo et al.'s "An Anthropocene map of genetic diversity" which measured genetic diversity within species but not between (!).

Practical issues

There are a bunch of practical issues to work through, such as how scalable it is to compute phylogenies using Javascript on the fly. For example, could we do something like generate a one degree by one degree grid of the Earth, take all the barcodes in each cell and compute a phylogeny for each cell? Could we do this in CouchDB? What about sampling, should we be taking a finite, random sample of sequences so that we try and avoid sampling bias?

There are also data management issues. I'm exploring downloading DNA barcodes, creating a Darwin Core Archive file using the Global Genome Biodiversity Network (GGBN) data standard, then converting the Darwin Core Archive into JSON and sending that to Elasticsearch. The reason for the intermediate step of creating the archive is so that we can edit the data, add missing geospatial informations, etc. I envisage having a set of archives, hosted say on GitHub. These archives could also be directly imported into GBIF, ready for the time that GBIF can handle genomic data.


  • Faith, D. P., & Baker, A. M. (2006). Phylogenetic diversity (PD) and biodiversity conservation: some bioinformatics challenges. Evol Bioinform Online. 2006; 2: 121–128. PMC2674678
  • Hajibabaei, M., & Singer, G. A. (2009). Googling DNA sequences on the World Wide Web. BMC Bioinformatics. Springer Nature.
  • Kuksa, P., & Pavlovic, V. (2009). Efficient alignment-free DNA barcode analytics. BMC Bioinformatics. Springer Nature.
  • Miraldo, A., Li, S., Borregaard, M. K., Florez-Rodriguez, A., Gopalakrishnan, S., Rizvanovic, M., … Nogues-Bravo, D. (2016, September 29). An Anthropocene map of genetic diversity. Science. American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS).
  • Yang, K., & Zhang, L. (2008, January 10). Performance comparison between k-tuple distance and four model-based distances in phylogenetic tree reconstruction. Nucleic Acids Research. Oxford University Press (OUP).

Notes for WikiCite 2017: Wikispecies reference parsing

Wikispecies logo svg In preparation for WikiCite 2017 I'm looking more closely at extracting bibliographic information from Wikispecies. The WikiCite project "is a proposal to build a bibliographic database in Wikidata to serve all Wikimedia projects". One reason for doing this is so that each factual statement in WikiData can be linked to evidence for that statement. Practical efforts towards this goal include tools to add details of articles from CrossRef and PubMed straight into Wikidata, and tools to extract citations from Wikipedia (as these are likely to be sources of evidence for statements made in Wikipedia articles).

Wikispecies occupies a rather isoldated spot in the Wiikipedia landscape. Unlike other sites which are essentially comprehensive encyclopedias in different languages, Wikispecies focusses on one domain - taxonomy. In a sense, it's a prototype of Wikidata in that it provides basic facts (who described what species when, and what is the classification of those species) that in principle can be reused by any of the other wikis. However, in practice this doesn't seem to have happened much.

What Wikispecies has become, however, is a crowd-sourced database of the taxonomic literture. For someone like me who is desparately gathering up bibliographic data so that I can extract articles from the Biodiversity Heritage Library (BHL), this is a potential goldmine. But, there's a catch. Unlike, say, the English language Wikipedia which has a single widely-used template for describing a publication, Wikispecies has it's own method of representing articles. It uses a somewhat confusing mix of templates for author names, and then uses barely standardised formatting rules to mark out parts of a publication (such as journal, volume, issue, etc.). Instead of a single template to describe a publication, in Wikispecies a publication my itself be described by a unique template. This has some advantages, in that the same reference can be transcluded into multiple articles (in other words, you enter the bibliographic details once). But this leaves us with many individual templates with multiple, idiosyncratic styles of representing bibliographic data. Some have tried to get the Wikispecies community to adopt the same template as Wikipedia (see e.g., this discussion) but this proposal has met with a lot of resistance. From my perspective as a potential consumer of data, the current situation in Wikispecies is frustrating, but the reality is that the people who create the content get to decide how they structure that content. And understandably, they are less than impressed by requests that might help others (such as data miners) at the expense of making their own work more difficult.

In summary, if I want to make use of Wikispecies I am going to need to develop a set of parsers than can make a reasonable fist of parsing all the myriad citation formats used in Wikispecies (my first attempts are on GitHub). I'm looking at parsing the references and converting them to a more standard format in JSON (I've made some notes on various bibliographic formats in JSON such as BibJSON and CSL-JSON). One outcome of this work will be, I hope, more articles discovered in BHL and hence added to BioStor), and more links to identifiers, which could be fed back into Wikispecies. I also want to explore linking the authors of these papers to identifiers, as already sketched out in The Biodiversity Heritage Library meets Wikidata via Wikispecies: adding author identifiers to BioStor.

Wednesday, February 15, 2017

New feature for BioStor: extracting literature cited from OCR text

At present BioStor provides a simple display of an article extracted from BHL. You get the page images, and sometimes a map and an altmetric "donut". But we can do better than this. For example, I'm starting to experiment with displaying a list of literature cited by the article. Below is a screenshot of the article A remarkable new species of Homalomena (Araceae) from Peninsular Malaysia showing the two references this article cites:

Screenshot 2017 02 15 19 28 17

These references have been extracted using some simple regular expressions written in Javascript and wrapped up in a CouchDB view. They are extracted as simple text strings, I've not made any further attempt to parse the string into authors, title, journal, etc.

Of course, what we really want is to be able to convert these strings into clickable links to the actual reference. In the spirit of "We don't need no stinkin' parser" (see also Resolving free-form citations) I've added a little search icon that when you click on it attempts to find the reference in BioStor. In the screenshot above we've found both references in BioStor.

Obvious next steps are to add other resolvers (such as CrossRef for DOIs), do the resolution before the references are displayed (rather than wait for the user to click on the search icon), and even more usefully, display a list of articles that cite each article in BioStor (in the example above, both cited articles should "know" that they have been cited).

Whether an article in BioStor has a list of citations depends on the success of the regular expressions in extracting them, and whether the database has the OCR text. The current version of BioStor didn't originally store the OCR text, so I'm slowly adding that to the references. Other examples of articles with citations include Northeast African racers of the Platyceps rhodorachis complex (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubrinae) and Synopsis of the Neotropical mantid genus Pseudacanthops Saussure, 1870, with the description of three new species (Mantodea: Acanthopidae).

Long term adding linked citations to BioStor means we get a step closer to being able to offer readers an experience like PubMed Central (PMC), where articles in PMC are linked to articles in PMC that either cite, or a cited by that article. I think there's a case for a PubMed Central-like service for biodiversity literature (see Possible project: A PubMed Central for taxonomy) that rescues that literature from the ghetto much of it currently resides in, and instead makes it a first class citizen of the wider digital biodiversity landscape.

Saturday, January 14, 2017

Displaying taxonomic classifications from Wikidata using d3js and SPARQL

Sahelanthropus tchadensis TM 266 01 060 1 Following on from previous posts The Semantic Web made fun: d3sparql and The Biodiversity Heritage Library meets Wikidata via Wikispecies: adding author identifiers to BioStor I've put together an example query that can be used to extract a taxonomic classification from Wikidata. The query is inspired by the example, and uses the wikidata property P171 ("parent taxon") which is subproperty of rdfs:subClassOf (the property used in the d3sparql example which queries the Uniprot taxonomy).

The following SPARQL query generates a list of nodes in the tree representing the classification of Hominini (humans, chimps, and their extinct relatives):

PREFIX wdt: <>
PREFIX wd: <>
SELECT ?root_name ?parent_name ?child_name WHERE
 VALUES ?root_name {"Hominini"}
 ?root wdt:P225 ?root_name .
 ?child wdt:P171+ ?root .
 ?child wdt:P171 ?parent .
 ?child wdt:P225 ?child_name .
 ?parent wdt:P225 ?parent_name .

Using as the endpoint, in this generates the following diagram:

Screenshot 2017 01 14 11 41 55

There are some obvious issues with this classification, such as genera that lack descendant species (e.g., Cyphanthropus). Indeed, we could imagine developing SPARQL queries to flag up such errors (see A use case for RDF in taxonomy). But the availability and accessibility of Wikidata and its SPARQL interface makes it a great playground to explore the utility of SPARQL for exploring taxonomic data.

Wednesday, January 11, 2017

The Biodiversity Heritage Library meets Wikidata via Wikispecies: adding author identifiers to BioStor

I've added an experimental feature to BioStor that uses data from Wikidata and Wikispecies to augment what information BioStor displays on authors. This is a crude first step towards the goal of representing all the data in BioStor as a "knowledge graph" where articles, journals, and authors are all treated as entities, all have identifiers, and we can explore relationships between those entities (e.g., citation, co-authorship, etc.). At the moment this is true of articles, which have Biostor URLs (and in many cases DOIs), and for most journals which are identified by their ISSN. Using identifiers helps reduce ambiguity, especially if there are multiple ways to represent the same thing (e.g., all the alternative ways to write a journal name can be circumvented by using the journal's ISSN).

However, BioStor doesn't have a way to identify authors beyond simply searching for a name. As a first step to tackling this problem I've added a little widget that displays information about an author based on the name you are searching for. For example, searching for George Albert Boulenger will give you a list of publications where the author name is "George Albert Boulenger", as well as a picture of the author and some identifiers (from sources such as VIAF, ISNI, IPNI, and Wikidata):

Screenshot 2017 01 11 16 30 57

For now this widget is independent of the data in BioStor. I don't link an article to its author(s) using identifiers for those authors, nor have I tackled the problem of clustering all the variations in people's names together into one set of names that share the same identifier (see Equivalent author names) nor do I attempt to match names to identifiers (see Reconciling author names using Open Refine and VIAF) other than by an exact text search (for details see below). At this stage I just want to get a sense of what identifiers exist for an author, and what I can learn from those identifiers. I also want to explore the potential of Wikispecies as a source of data on people and publications, and how this relates to Wikidata (for earlier thoughts on using Wikipedia for the same goal see Thoughts on Wikipedia, Wikidata, and the Biodiversity Heritage Library).


I confess I've never really "got" Wikispecies (e.g., Wikispecies is not a database), it seems to exist in isolation from Wikipedia, which is arguably more informative about many species. But there are a couple of things Wikispecies does very well. Firstly, it is building a rich, crowd-sourced bibliography of papers on the taxonomy of many different species. Readers of iPhylo will recall how many times I've expressed frustration at the nearly evidence-free nature of many online taxonomic databases that simply have lists of names unconnected to the primary literature. Many Wikispecies pages have long lists of papers, making it a potential goldmine. Recently there is a lot of interest in extracting bibliographic data from Wikipedia (see WikiCite). Wikispecies could also be harvested, although a major obstacle any such project faces is the lack of a consistent format for references in Wikispecies.

The other nice thing about Wikipecies is that it has articles on taxonomic authorities, and these often list publications by those authors, and also list external identifiers for those authors, such as the VIAF and ISNI identifiers used in the library world, IPNI and ZooBank identifiers used in taxonomic databases, and ORCID which is becoming the de-facto identifier for academic researchers. This information also ends up in Wikidata.

Using Wikidata to glue things together

Wikidata is an interesting project that, like Wikispecies, I've been in two minds about (see Wikidata, Wikipedia, and #wikisci). However, I've started to make more use of it recently. Inspired by the Wikidata:SPARQL query service/2016 SPARQL Workshop I decided to explore the SPARQL query interface to Wikidata. I was struck by one of the example queries involving Wikispecies, and so after a little bit of messing about came up with a query that takes the name of an author and returns some identifiers from Wikidata, as well as an image of that person if one is available. I restrict the results to people that have an article about them in Wikispecies, because I want start exploring using those articles to make assertions about authorship. Here is a query to search for "George Albert Boulenger":

  ?item rdfs:label "George Albert Boulenger"@en .
  ?article schema:about ?item .
  ?article schema:isPartOf  .
   ?item wdt:P213 ?isni .
   ?item wdt:P214 ?viaf .
   ?item wdt:P18 ?image .
   ?item wdt:P496 ?orcid .
   ?item wdt:P586 ?ipni .
   ?item wdt:P2006 ?zoobank .

This query simply asks whether Wikidata has an item on this person, whether that item is linked to Wikispecies, what identifiers Wikidata has, and whether there is an image of the person. You can see the query "live" here:

I've added some code to BioStor to do this query on the fly, and display the results. So, for Boulenger we get: Screenshot 2017 01 11 17 04 16 Here is the result for noted carcinologist Jocelyn Crane who currently lacks identifiers: Screenshot 2017 01 11 17 05 32 A nice surprise was Bernard Landry: Screenshot 2017 01 11 17 07 14 Note the ORCID 0000-0002-6005-1067. Interestingly, Bernard Landry's ORCID profile doesn't list any publications, whereas we can see lists of these in BioStor and Wikispecies.

Where next?

There are several obstacles to mapping the names of authors to identifiers. One is simply the lack of identifiers. This seems to be rapidly becoming less of a problem with the efforts of the library community around VIAF, the rise of ORCID for living researchers, and the creation of Wikidata items for every taxonomist in Wikispecies. The next challenge is clustering the different ways of writing the same person's name into sets that represent the same person. As discussed above, there are tools for this. Furthermore, with Wikipedia and Wikispecies we have sources of lists of publications linked to a person and their identifiers, which should simplify the task considerably. What is nice about this is that it relies on a crowd-sourcing effort which is already well-established, namely those people who in adding articles to Wikispecies and Wikipedia are created a curated database of publications linked to authors. In many cases those publications are linked to BHL (the source that BioStor extracts its articles from), so many of the links between publications and people are essentially lying there, just waiting for some skilful harvesting.

Friday, December 23, 2016

Taxonomic name timelines for BHL

Given a big corpus of literature one of the fun things to do is look at how the use of a term has changed over time. When did people first use a particular word? When did one word start to replace another, etc.? Google's Ngram Viewer is perhaps the best known tool for exploring these questions.

In the context of biodiversity doing something similar for BHL is an obvious thing to do. I've made various clunky attempts in the past (e.g., Biodiversity Heritage Library sparklines) but these all died.

Ryan Schenk (who did a lot of the user interface for my BioNames project) wrote a very stylish tool to display changes in names over time. Called "Synynyms" his tool is now defunct, but you can read about it here and the source code is on github. Ryan would take a name, find synonyms, then graph the changes in use of all those names over time.

Bison bison Linnaeus 1758 synynyms 1024x675

The death of Synynyms has not gone unnoticed:

I've had a tool for my own use that searches BHL for a name and displays the results after first trying to aggregate the hits in a sensible way. For example, if there is more than one hit in a scanned volume, and those hits al fall on pages in the same article in BioStor, then I display the BioStor article, instead of a list of each hit separately. Inspired by @PhyloJCAM's question I've built a simple tool to explore the use of one or more name over time.

Located in the "labs" section of BioStor, the BHL timeline takes one or more names and searches for those names in BHL, displaying the results as a chart and a list of hits. I often use it simply to search BHL for a particular name, but you can also use it to compare names, e.g. Aspidoscelis costata and Cnemidophorus costatus:

Screenshot 2016 12 23 06 38 32

The timeline tool is pretty crude, and it's slow if there are lots of hits in BHL. So, it's not as slick as Synynyms (Ryan Schenk is a clever programmer than I am). Still, it is a useful way to explore BHL and discover articles that you might not have known existed.